Audubon supports properly sited renewable energy, including the transmission lines that carry power to population centers. As the country ramps up its renewable energy portfolio, properly sited tranmission lines to carry (properly sited) renewable energy, often generated in remote locations, to population centers is just as key. How much renewable energy do we need? Climate change and our dependence on fossil fuels is driving the need for this transition to renewables with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas pollution by 80-90% from 1990 levels by 2050 according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Working with industry and local, regional and federal decision-makers, Audubon provides important information on how best to avoid bird and wildlife impacts from renewable installations. Working with developers before the bulldozers move in can avoid lengthy battles and provide better outcomes for birds, wildlife and critical habitat. Our work to promote properly sited transmission corridors helps to ensure that Important Bird Areas and other habitats critical for the survival of bird populations and migratory species are avoided.
For an excellent overview on transmission and renewnewable energy, we recomment National Public Radio's Special Series on America's Power Grid
Power Hungry: Reinventing the U.S. Electric Grid
Western Transmission Lines
Working with industry and local, regional and federal decision-makers, Audubon provides important information on how best to avoid bird and wildlife impacts from generation and new transmission line development. Working with developers before the bulldozers move in can avoid lengthy battles and provide better outcomes for birds, wildlife and critical habitat. A large number of high voltage transmission lines have been proposed to bring energy to growing population centers, especially to those in the southwest and California. These lines are in addition to an existing web of high voltage transmission lines.
To build America's clean energy economy we must update our transmission grid for the 21st century, so that we can efficiently move power from the new energy frontier to the places it is consumed. – Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar
About High Voltage Transmission Lines
High-voltage transmission lines, such as those featured here, typically require a 250-300 foot right-of-way width within a 2-mile-wide transmission corridor along the entire length of the project. These transmission lines are either direct current or alternating current. They are a range of voltages, generally 345 to 600 kilovolts. Depending on voltages, these lines can carry as much as 3,000 megawatts (1 MW = 1 million watts), which can power as many as 1.8 million homes.
The towers used to support the overhead transmission lines are usually 100-190 feet in height and span 900 to 1,500 feet apart (4-5 structures per mile), depending on structure type, terrain, span and line crossings. In addition, there are substation converters and construction and maintenance access roads approximately 30 feet wide.
source: TransWest Express
NEPA, or the National Environmental Policy Act, was one of the first laws ever written that establishes a broad national framework for protecting our environment. NEPA’s basic policy is to assure that all branches of government give proper consideration to the environment prior to undertaking any major federal action that could significantly affect the environment. For transmission lines that involve federal land, which is all of the high voltage lines featured here, companies need to obtain a right-of-way grant from a federal agency (most often the BLM) and they have to go through the NEPA process. Given the size and scope of these proposed transmission projects, Environmental Impact Statements need to be prepared for these proposed transmission projects. This allows the public to review these projects at various stages (scoping, draft EIS, final EIS) and submit comments or concerns.
Gateway West (WY, ID)
The furthest along of all the proposed high voltage transmission lines, it starts just outside of Casper, Wyoming, swinging down through the southern part of the state and end in Boise, Idaho. How it overlays with important sage-grouse and sage-dependent species, impacts to riparian areas, and other environmental considerations are all part of what Audubon is bringing to this project. This line is proposed to be an alternating current high-voltage transmission line. Current Status: Comments on Final EIS (public comment period closed on 6/28/13) being reviewed by BLM, preparation of the Record of Decision. Learn more.
TransWest Express (WY, CO, UT, NV)
TransWest Express is a 725-mile-long transmission line that would start in Sinclair, Wyoming, travel through Colorado and Utah, and terminate in the Las Vegas area of southern Nevada. The project has been proposed by TransWest Express LLC, a subsidiary of the Anschutz Corporation, based out of Denver. This transmission line is being proposed to complement another one of Anschutz’s projects, a 3,000 megawatt wind farm in southern Wyoming (1,000 turbines – largest onshore wind farm). The Bureau of Land Management has already approved the Chokecherry and Sierra Madre Wind Energy Project, and the TransWest power line would help transport energy from this wind farm to growing energy markets in the Southwest. This line is proposed to be a direct current high-voltage transmission line. Current Status: Draft EIS released on 7/3/13. Waiting for release of the Final EIS. See attached Fact Sheet on the problems with the current BLM preferred route. Learn more.
Gateway South (WY, CO, UT)
The Gateway South line will begin at the Aeolus substation in southeastern Wyoming, which will also house the company’s Gateway West line, and will travel 400 miles south through Colorado until it terminates near Mona, Utah. When completed, Gateway South will carry approximately 1,500 megawatts of electricity, including potentially power generated from renewable resources in Wyoming. This line is proposed to be an alternating current high-voltage transmission line. Current Status: Draft EIS expected to be released in summer 2013. Learn more.
Zephyr (WY, ID, NV)
Zephyr is the most recent new high-voltage transmission line proposed, and has not begun the formal public comment opportunity. The line is being proposed by Duke American Transmission Company (DATC) that would travel from Wheatland/Chugwater area in Wyoming to the Eldorado Valley south of Las Vegas, a total of 850 miles. The project aims to transport abundant renewable energy resources in Wyoming to a growing energy market in the Southwest by teaming up with Wyoming’s Pathfinder Renewable Wind Project. This line is proposed to be a direct current high-voltage transmission line. Current Status: Developer outreach beginning but formal public comment opportunity through NEPA has not yet begun. Learn more.
San Luis Valley (CO)
This proposed transmission line project would travel over La Veta Pass into Colorado's San Luis Valley, with the goal of increasing transmission reliability and access to solar resources in the San Luis Valley. The transmission line is being proposed by Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association and Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), an Xcel Energy Company. The region supports a variety of wildlife, and of special concern are Sandhill Cranes and other species which migrate through the valley. Current Status: Delayed Learn more.
Sunzia (NM, AZ)
The SunZia Project consists of two extra-high voltage electric transmission lines and substations that will transport primarily renewable energy from Arizona and New Mexico to customers and markets across the southwestern United States. Current Status: Comments on Final EIS (public comment period closed in July 2013) being reviewed by BLM, preparation of the Record of Decision. Learn more
Helpful resources about western transmission projects:
- Western Grid Group
- West Wide Energy Corridor Final PEIS Maps
- Western Electricity Coordinating Council
- Western Renewable Zones (by the Western Governors Association) (PDF)
- Wyoming Infrastructure Authority
- BLM’s Website on Electric Transmission Facilities & Energy Corridors
Become familiar with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) - a formal process that allows your voice to be heard as projects' potential effects on environmental resources (land use, threatened and endangered species, wetlands, scenic areas, cultural resources etc.) are evaluated! The National Environmental Policy Act has been a critical tool for conservation. Learn more from A Citizen's Guide to NEPA (PDF).
For additional information regarding birds and power lines, visit the Avian Power Line Interaction Committee website.